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A geologist tries to understand the earth. Many specialize in various areas of geology. You spend time collecting samples and creating geological maps of the area. You work in the laboratory, analyze collected samples and use earth research software.

What Does A Geologist Do?

The tasks vary from job to job, but the following list contains typical tasks:

  • Analyze and interpret information from data, logs, boreholes, or aerial photographs.

  • Conduct field studies, sampling, drilling and testing programs to collect data for research.

  • Assess water movement to advise on issues such as

    • waste disposal,

    • route and location selection, or

    • restoration of contaminated sites.

  • Evaluate natural gas, oil, mineral or water using aerial photographs, tables, research or survey.

  • Communicate geological knowledge by writing research, attending conferences, or teaching geosciences at university.

  • Examine construction projects to analyze technical problems with test equipment or drilling machines.

  • Identify deposits of building materials that are suitable for use.

  • Work with medical professionals to solve problems related to geological materials or processes.

  • Determine methods for including geo methane or methane hydrates in global energy production. Assess its possible environmental impact.

  • Conducting geological or geophysical studies. Provide information for

    • regional development,

    • site selection or

    • the development of public construction projects.

  • Identify risks for natural disasters such as mudslides, earthquakes or volcanic eruptions.

  • Design geological mine maps, track its structural integrity, advise and monitor mining teams.

  • Geologists study dangerous earth processes such as 

    • Landslides,

    • Earthquakes,

    • Floods and

    • Volcanic eruptions.

Geologists work to understand them so that important structures could not be damaged.

Example- If geologists can create maps of areas that have been flooded in the past, they can map areas that may be flooded in the future.

How Do You Become A Geologist?

For professionals, practical work is carried out using sophisticated equipment. Drills penetrate the surface of the earth and drill rock samples from the depth of the crust.

Geology involves a thorough study of geography, the thorough knowledge of it only comes with a science background.


  • Palaeontology: the classification and taxonomy of fossils within the geological record. The construction of a paleontological history of the earth.

  • Petroleum geology: Investigation of sediment basins to search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration).

  • Planetary geology: the study of geology in relation to other celestial bodies.

  • Structural geology: an investigation of folds, faults, leaf formation and rock microstructure. Determining the history of deformation of rocks and regions.

  • Sediment geologists spend time studying erosion processes that produce such formations. Around the world, sand actually consists only of the fragments of many tiny creatures. To be honest, few geologists see lava, but many of them have visited a volcano at least once.

Top Institutes offering Geology

  • Manipal Institute of Technology,[MIT]Manipal University.

  • Fergusson College,[FC]Pune.

  • Hans Raj College, Delhi University.

  • MG Science Institute,[MGSI]Ahmedabad.

  • Ravenshaw University, Cuttack.

  • Indian Institute of Technology[IIT], Kharagpur.

Popular colleges offering Geology

  • St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai 

  • St. Xavier’s College, Ranchi

  • Stani Memorial Pg College, Jaipur

  • Dhempe College Of Arts And Sciences, Goa

  • Stewart Science College, Cuttack

Scope and Growth Opportunities

In future, opportunities won't change, but the nature and process of employment will. Technological innovations will change the methods of soil exploration and analysis. The number of undiscovered locations will decrease, reducing the available pool of jobs. Geologists may see their role in environmental issues rather than venture capital issues.

You will see them work with an iron mine with the same likelihood that they work on an oil rig. Nearly one-quarter of qualified geologists work in oil and gas extraction. Approximately one in every six works in engineering services. One in seven in technical and advisory. One in twelve in government facilities.

How much Geologists make?

  • Avg. Salary in India - Rs 597,997/yr

  • Avg. Salary less than 1 year - Rs 508,682/yr

  • Mid Career Salary (5-9 years) - Rs 616,736/yr

Who are the major recruiters?

  • D-M-L Technical Search

  • Glacial Geology a

  • Celkon Exxelo Engineering Services

  • Pan Orient Energy


  • LSC Infratech Ltd


Interesting Facts

Birbal Sahni FRS was a palaeobotanist from India who studied fossils of the Indian subcontinent. He was also interested in geology and archaeology. In 1946, he founded the current Birbal Sahni Institute for Palaeobotany in Lucknow.